We developed a virtual hip replacement simulator for training surgeons.
The simulated surgery uses a haptic interface with the Geomagic (Sensable) Omni combined with the eMagin stereoscopic head mounted display (HMD). This simulates bone drilling, sawing, reaming and various orthopaedic tools.
This was interfaced with 3D printing technology which has capability to 3D-print metallic hip stem implants which can be custom made to fit individual patients from their CT scan data . This was a novel aspect, not covered in the existing orthopaedic simulators shown in our published comprehensive review . The simulator also assesses the accuracy of hip implant surgery , which provides feedback differentiating between novice/expert surgeons and to predict the risk of future hip dislocation or failure based on the placement accuracy.
 Vaughan N, Dubey VN, (2016) Hip replacement simulator for predicting dislocation risk, Intl. Design, Engineering & Technical Conference, Paper59286, Charlotte, USA. http://proceedings.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/data/conferences/asmep/90681/v01bt02a044-detc2016-59286.pdf
 Vaughan N, Dubey VN, Wainwright TW, Middleton RG, (2016, Feb) A Review of Virtual Reality Based Training Simulators for Orthopaedic Surgery. Medical Engineering & Physics, 38(2), p59-71. (Impact 2.2) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1350453315002799
 Vaughan N, Dubey VN (2017, Sep) Virtual Hip Replacement Simulator For 3D Printed Implants, ASME Journal of Medical Devices, DMD2017-3496, 11(3). http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/28213/1/DMD2017-3496.pdf